alpha cells of the pancreas — secrete glucagon in response to decrease in blood glucose

beta cells of the pancreas — secrete insulin in response to increase in blood glucose

compliance — adherence to prescribed treatment regimen

DPP-4 — dipeptidyl peptidase 4. This is an intestinal enzyme that blocks the action of hormones such as GLP-1 (see glucagon-like peptide-1 below).

DPP-4 inhibitors — a class of drugs used to treat DMT2 (and, in conjunction with insulin, DMT1) which block the action of DPP-4 and thereby lead to an increase in GLP-1. The end result of the actions of DPP-4 inhibitors is the enhanced secretion of GLP-1 (glucagon-like peptide-1). Two examples of DPP-4 inhibitors are sitagliptin and saxagliptin.

DKA — Diabetic KetoAcidosis; a form of metabolic acidosis due to insufficient insulin and the consequences of the chemical changes which occur as a result

endogenous — from within the body

exogenous — from outside the body; exogenous insulin is that insulin which is injected into the body from an outside source

GLP-1 — glucagon-like peptide-1 – a naturally occurring hormone that is secreted by intestinal cells in response to the ingestion of food. Such chemicals are called incretins. GLP-1 stimulates the islet cells in the pancreas to produce insulin (possible in DMT2; not possible in DMT1). GLP\-1 also slows gastric emptying, reduces appetite, increases the sense of satiety, and suppresses glucagon secretion. GLP-1 has a very short activity period because it is degraded by the enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4). An example of a GLP-1 is exenatide.

glucagon — hormone secreted by alpha cells of pancreas; stimulates breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose by the liver

glucometer — a device designed for self-monitoring of blood glucose

gluconeogenesis — formation of glycogen from non-carbohydrate sources such as proteins and fats; occurs in liver under conditions of starvation or in any case when the body is deprived of sufficient glucose to meet its needs; occurs in uncontrolled/undiagnosed diabetes, despite hyperglycemia, because glucose cannot be used by the body due to the lack of insulin

glucose reagent strips — materials treated with a substance which indicates varying amounts of glucose in the blood; usually used with a glucometer

glucosuria — glucose in the urine

glycogen — a storage form of glucose; converted into glucose when needed by the influence of the hormone, glucagon

glycosylated hemoglobin — component of hemoglobin molecule which can be measured to indicate average blood glucose over past three months; also called hemoglobin A1c, HgbA1c, HbA1c, and simply A1c

HHS — Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State; a pathophysiological state due to excessive blood sugar typically without ketonemia; previously called HHNK (Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic" coma) until it was determined that it sometimes occurs in the presence of ketones

HHNK — Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Non-ketotic Coma; a pathophysiological state due to excessive blood sugar but without ketonemia

hyperglycemia — high blood glucose

hypertonic — having a higher osmotic pressure than a compared solution; a concentrated solution

hypoglycemia — low blood glucose

immunosuppressive drug — blocks the body's response to foreign tissue; also known as "anti-rejection" drug; examples are cyclosporine, Imuran, and FK506

ketonemia — ketones in the blood

ketonuria — ketones in the urine

metabolic acidosis — abnormally low pH of the blood due to aberrant metabolic processes in the body

microalbuminuria — protein elements indicative of kidney disease which appear in the urine at the earliest stages of the problem; detectable by a urine test

negative nitrogen balance — metabolic state in which amount of nitrogen ingested is less than the amount excreted; could be the result of insufficient intake or excessive protein breakdown or both

neuropathy — disease of a nerve; a complication which sometimes occurs in diabetes

oral hypoglycemic agents — oral medications sometimes used to control DMT2; stimulate the pancreas to produce insulin

peripheral vascular disease/peripheral arterial disease— disease of the small, distal arteries of the legs and feet; a complication which sometimes occurs in diabetes

polydipsia — insatiable thirst that leads to frequent, excessive drinking; one of the cardinal signs of uncontrolled/undiagnosed diabetes

polyphagia — excessive eating; one of the cardinal signs of uncontrolled/undiagnosed diabetes

polyuria — excessive urination; one of the cardinal signs of uncontrolled/undiagnosed diabetes

renal threshold — blood glucose level at which kidneys can no longer reabsorb glucose into the blood and glucose spills into the urine

satiety — physiological sense of feeling full to satisfaction (refers to state of body after eating)

Somogyi Effect — the occurrence of hyperglycemia after an episode of hypoglycemia; the result of a hypoglycemic reaction which stimulates body processes which raise the blood glucose

Type 1 diabetes (DMT1) — previously known as Type I diabetes, insulin-dependent diabetes, and juvenile diabetes; the type of diabetes that results from an absolute lack of insulin; usually occurs in persons under 24 years of age. Treatment is with insulin. Newer treatments may include pramlintide - a synthetic reproduction of the hormone, amylin.

Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) — previously known as Type II diabetes, non-insulin-dependent diabetes, and adult onset diabetes; the type of diabetes that results from a relative lack of insulin - from insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion; treatment includes education about nutrition and eating patterns, exercise, and (usually) weight loss; treatment may also include oral anti-diabetic agents, injectable incretin mimetics, and/or insulin.

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